Thursday, May 1, 2014

#10 Research Blog

Link to paper:

This paper seeks to answer the question: How and why can universities in America help minority students integrate socially, academically, and economically in college to prevent attrition? The retention of minority students in the United States is extremely low and needs to be improved. This paper applies the philosophy of Vincent Tinto’s retention model to minority students in colleges and universities. This paper focuses on finding ways to address the social, academic and economic needs of minority students proves that all universities need to invest resources into minority students to improve the economy of the United States.

Works Cited
Armstrong, Elizabeth and Laura Hamilton. Paying for the Party: How College Maintains  Inequality. Harvard 2013. Print.
Chang, Mariko. "College Debt Threatens the Hopes and Dreams of Minority Students." TheHill. N.p., 3 Nov. 2011. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. <>.
Chapman, David W., and Ernest T. Pascarella. Predictors of Academic and Social Integration of College Students - Springer. Digital image. SpringerLink. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 25 Feb. 1983. Web. 25 Feb. 2014. <>.
Chau, Joanna. "The Biggest Obstacle for First-Generation College Students."The Chronicle of Higher Education. N.p., 25 Apr. 2012. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. <>.
Deil-Amen, Regina. “Socio-Academic Integrative Moments: Rethinking Academic And Social Integration Among Two-Year College Students In Career-Related Programs.” Journal Of Higher Education 82.1 (2011): 54-91. Academic Search Premier. Web 14 Apr, 2014.
Demetriou, Cynthia, and Amy Schmitz-Sciborski. "Integration, Motivation, Strengths and Optimism: Retention Theories Past, Present and Future."Student Success. N.p., 2011. Web. 28 Apr. 2014. <>.
"First Generation College Students and Beating the Odds." Plaza College. Plaza College, 8 Oct. 1012. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. <>.
Gutierrez, Armais. Personal Interview. 7 Apr. 2014.        
"Higher Education." The White House. The White House, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2014. <>.
Kelly, Jeremy L., et al. "Perceptions Of College Students On Social Factors That Influence Student Matriculation." College Student Journal 46.3 (2012): 653-664. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Mar. 2014.
Kirp, David L. "How to Help College Students Graduate." The New York Times. The New York Times, 08 Jan. 2014. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. <>.
Mayes, Chasity. "FIrst Generation College Students: The Real Struggle."KSMU. N.p., 20 Sept. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. <>
Natiello, Eva Lesko. "Rutgers Future Scholars Program: Rutgers Invests in Students and Their Futures." N.p., 7 Aug. 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2014.
"New Report Shows Improved pace of College Attainment Is Still Not Enough to Meet Future Workforce Needs; Massive Racial Achievement Gaps Continue | Lumina Foundation." Lumina Foundation. N.p., 13 June 2013. Web. 07 Apr. 2014. <>.
Porter, Eduardo. "Dropping Out of College, and Paying the Price." The New York Times. The New York Times, 25 June 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2014. <>.
Rienties, Bart, et al. “Understanding Academic Performance Of International Students: The Role of Ethnicity, Academic and Social Integration.” Higher Education 63.6 (2012): 685-700. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Mar. 2014.
Ritger, Clara. "Why Racial Integration Is Still a Problem on Today's Campus." USA TODAY College. N.p., 11 Mar. 2013. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. <>.
“Rutgers Joins the CIC/Big Ten-Ivy League Traumatic Brain Injury Research Collaboration.” Rep. Rutgers University, n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. <>.
Sparkman, Larry A., Wanda S. Maulding, and Jalynn G. Roberts. "Non-Cognitive Predictors Of Student Success In College." College Student Journal 46.3 (2012): 642-652. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Mar. 2014.
Tinto, Vincent. "Taking Retention Seriously: Rethinking the First Year of College." NACADA Journal. N.p., 1999. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. <>
Tucker, Geri Coleman. "First Generation." Diverse: Issues In Higher Education (2014): 24-28. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Mar. 2014.
Woosley, Sherry A, and Dustin k. Shepler. “Understanding The Early Integration Experiences Of First-Generation College Students.” College Student Journal 45.4 (2011): 700-714. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.

Schhneider, Barbara. "Barriers to Educational Opportunities for Hispanics in the United States." National Research Council. National Academic Press, 18 June 2006. Web. 28 Apr. 2014.

Monday, April 21, 2014

#9 Argument and Counter Argument

My Argument:

Universities in America need to help minority students integrate into college to prevent attrition. Universities also need to understand why minorities are are dropping out. They need to identify which students are struggling and the reasons why.  Colleges then need to find possible solutions to help minorities integrate better into the college community. There are social, academic and economic factors that contribute to student attrition and these issues can be addressed. Retaining minority enrollment within American universities will help increase graduation rates and therefore improve the health of the national economy.

A source that supports my argument is my interview with Armais Gutierrez, The director of the Rutgers Future Scholars Program on the New Brunswick campus. Gutierrez has worked with minority students and has made strides to help them through their college career. Gutierrez comments on the effectiveness of the program. He states that. "The program does not guarantee the the graduation rates but it proves them" (Gutierrez). He is saying that the school can not predict the future but we can show results and data that shows the programs success.

 Counter Argument: 

Some colleges might argue that integrating minority students successfully so they can graduate is unrealistic. Schools do not have funding or the resources to create a comparable program to the Rutgers Future Scholars Program. Rutgers just entered the Committee on Institutional Corporation (CIC) and the Big Ten. These organizations fund Rutger's largest programs and research. The CIC provides more academic opportunities for all Rutgers students and The Big Ten provides funding for Rutgers Athletics. The CIC specifically helps Rutgers, "save money, share assets, and increase teaching, learning and research opportunities" for the entire Rutgers Community (counter argument source). Because Rutgers is being helped by these organizations, they can focus other funds and resources on smaller programs like the RFSP. Other Universities that are not part of large funding organizations might not be able to follow through with a program for minorities because they do not have extra financial support. 

Disprove counter argument:

Although small universities have limitations, with more government funding for all American universities, extensive minority programs are possible.

Counter Argument Source:

Saturday, April 19, 2014

Literature Review #5

Work Cited
"New Report Shows Improved pace of College Attainment Is Still Not Enough to Meet Future Workforce Needs; Massive Racial Achievement Gaps Continue | Lumina Foundation." Lumina Foundation. N.p., 13 June 2013. Web. 07 Apr. 2014. <>.

Summery: This article is about the college at attainment level and how even though it is on the rise, it is not enough. They amount of students graduating does not compare to the amount of professional jobs that need to be filled. The article details statistics about the lack of racial minorities graduating from college. The Lumina Foundation, which released the article, wants to reach a goal by 2025. They want to design a great higher education program for the 21st century and they want to, "mobilize employers, policymakers, institutions, state and metro leaders and others to better position America for success in the knowledge economy" (New). They believe that this will strengthen the economy.

There were no listed authors. 
The Lumina Foundation: This foundation is a private organization that wants to increase the number of Americans with higher education degrees to meet their goal in 2025.

Key Terms:
Gaps by Race: This term found in the article is referencing the "gap" or lack of racial minorities graduating college.

Strategic Plan: This is a new plan the foundation makes every four years to outline how the foundation will approach reaching its 2025 goal.

"the pace of progress is far too modest to meet future workforce needs" (New). 

"degree attainment rates among adults (ages 25-64) in the U.S. continue to be woefully unbalanced, with 59.1 percent of Asians having a degree versus 43.3 percent of whites, 27.1 percent of blacks, 23.0 of Native Americans and 19.3 of Hispanics" (New). 

"Our democracy and our economy are ill-served by a system that fails to effectively tap all of our available talent" (New). 

This material perfectly supports my argument. I want colleges to implement programs that are much needed for minority students so the economy can continue thrive in America.

Monday, April 14, 2014

#8 Interview

Rutgers Future Scholars Program
Program Director
191 College Ave, 202B
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
Phone: 848-932-6713

Interview with Aramis Gutierrez

What is the History of your Program, how did it start up?

“Started in 2007, the story behind the program the vice president for enrolment management presenting to the board of governors about the population of students...decline in the communities around rutgers, schools in the area should really be working with the students in the new brunswick area. Board of Governors member, Bill Howard- reverend of bethany baptist church in newark presented to everyone and see there will be a time when we won't see a student from the newark community enrolled at Rutgers so that was the call to actions. what can we do to make sure these students feel like rutgers is a safe place to come? so Vice President proposed the rutgers future scholars program to president Mccormick and the proposal. It included a number of things. One was early identification. One issue that students from underprivileged areas face is knowledge about information about college and affordability and preparation. Lets aidentify them early, middle school, before drop outs in 8th grade. Start working with them then in 7th grade. The first goal is to graduate them from high school. Offer them free tuition was the second thing. And not much opposition to the idea of giving students a full ride. In 2007 the program started by identifying 200 students each year and starting it in the summer. I came on in 2008. In essence what we do, what we say is we offer hope and opportunity and scholarship for students every year from our community. We provide them with academic rigor. We show them what a college education could do for them. And finding the support when they get here.

How specifically do you work with them starting in 7th grade?

“Spring of 7th grade year, we call them scholars, this alone sets the bar for what they are expected to achieve in academia. They identify them with selves with their college class not just their high school class. The students who are seniors this year say they are the class of 2018. Builds this family and inspires and motivates them. They take a two week summer course and they take classes to early expose them to rutgers courses. They might take a physics class, chemistry, and history. It is not academically rigorous. It is more about showing them what they need to work on. Building trust with the staff. They get acclimated to the campus.

Do they have social events as well?

“sure! They don’t know each other so they get trust and confidence with each other over the length of the program.” The class of 2017 is very close.

This is the first class to enter Rutgers this year, How is that working out?

“We keep track of them. Think about what they have done. We start working with them in 7th grade and byu the time they hit 9th grade they take an expos course and a few science courses and it gets harder and harder each year. They do an internship and public speaking class and they take about 6 college credits before they come here. They can test out of a lot of intro classes when they get here. So that is helpful. Some students who have to take expository writing know its difficult but are prepared for the challenge. What we do is try to answer three questions: Am i smart enough for college? We provide them with preparation. Second: Will I fit in? we provide per support as the students grow together. They also have undergraduate mentors that they can keep in touch with when they get to Rutgers. The mentos all work with them through the year and after school. And its two credits for the undergrad. They help them look for schools find best options for the students. All students this year are first year generation students.

How many of the students live on campus
“Half of the students live on campus. 99 enrolled at Rutgers from the 200 scholars and about half of that is on campus. They do not cover room and board. We found some private support for students but most have to take out some loans.

How many students do you predict will graduate in 2017?

“We are aiming for 100% graduation rate. anything less than that is unacceptable to me. The program does not guarantee the the graduation rates but it proves them. Some students are struggling. Its a combination of rigor and doubt in themselves. That tells us we need to improve our summer courses. No much problems have social problems. most of the issue come from academic struggle. About 85 percent had a GPA of 2.0 or higher” When you talk to the kids they will tell you they love the sense of family that they have and the community of Rutgers. The academics are what they talk about first.
“we have all types of students. some have families and they have kids already and they are expected to work, so you have extreme cases and we have very poor students”

Is the program going to grow? Will you eventually accept more students?

“Unfortunately with funding we can only take 50 students from each community. If we could we would take more. We go through a screening process. There is a application process. The school district helps identify scholars. You have to build trust with the school districts before they can let you in. The schools need to prepare the students on top of what we do. We let friends of scholars come and sit in on free classes and even though we can give them free tuition we can let them learn. We try to include everyone.”

Monday, March 31, 2014

My Case

My case or chief example that I am going to use for my argument is Tinto's research on socialization.

My argument is: Universities in America need to help minority students socially integrate into college to prevent attrition. This is because the diversity created by the presence of minorities provides unique perspectives in the workforce and society. In the college setting a diverse student population is a reflection of the world outside of college and forces students to be comfortable working with one another. And overall involvement from American universities will help increase graduation rates and therefore improve the overall health of national economy.

Tinto’s Student Integration Model (1975) shows that proper social integration of students increases their likelihood for success in the institution. Is is this concept that influences my argument. If colleges spend time working with minarets socially, more minorities will graduate and therefore benefit society. Tinto's research has been used by many scholars and applied to many case studies involving minorities and attrition.

An interesting study on first generation college students uses the Tinto middle as a starting point to their research.
Works Cited
Woosley, Sherry A., and Dustin K. Shepler. "Understanding The Early Integration Experiences Of First-Generation College Students." College Student Journal 45.4 (2011): 700-714. Academic Search Premier. Web. 31. Mar. 2014


Total Enrollment by Race and Ethnicity

There is huge gap among the amount of white people in American universities and other races. They include Asian, African America, Hispanic, Multi-Racial, and other. There is a lack of diversity in many higher education programs. When the population of students is one-sided at a university, students are not exposed to more than one culture. Society is diverse and a diverse college population would prepare students for that environment. It would also be much easier for minorities to socially integrate into college and graduate if there was more racal variety. They would not feel as out of place socially. 

An interesting interactive graph on this subject can be found at:

This graph further reiterates how minorities are not being integrated into certain colleges and universities. 

Monday, March 24, 2014

Literature Review #4

Works Cited

Sparkman, Larry A., Wanda S. Maulding, and Jalynn G. Roberts. "Non-Cognitive Predictors Of Student Success In College." College Student Journal 46.3 (2012): 642-652.Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Mar. 2014.


This is a case study about the importance of emotional intelligence for college students. Students at the freshman orientation at a particular college were given the Bar-On EQ self-report test. This test measures emotional and social intelligence. Through this study it was predicted that the demographic most likely to graduate were white females. Minorities such as first generation students are less likely to graduate because of a lack of emotional support from parents. The article suggests means of improving emotional intelligence by universities making preparation programs that help improve emotional intelligence.

Larry A. Sparkman:
He is the director of the Luckyday Foundation Citizenship Scholars Program at the University of Southern Mississippi. Sparkman is involved with the living-learing community, service learning and servant leadership at the university. 

Wanda S Maulding:
Maulding is part of the Department of Leadership and Teacher Education at the University of South Alabama. 

Jalynn G. Roberts:
She is a professor of education at William Carey University in Hattiesburg, MS. 

emotional intelligence: It is comprised of social responsibility and empathy. It is  set of skill's a person needs to function effectively in life. Emotional intelligence can be taught by universities to increase likelihood of graduation.

Social responsibility and empathy: can be addressed by universities through academics and extracurricular activities. 


“The findings of this research suggest that the demographic most likely to graduate from a particular university are White female, not dating, who live on campus their first semester, and one or both parents having a 4-year degree” (648 Sparkman).

"Tinto believed that the level of integration in inversely related to the potential that student will drop out. The more a student integrates, the less likely the student is to drop out of the institution" (642 Sparkman).

"Students who have high scores in flexibility may be in need of intentional intervention in the form of direct contact and interaction with well-informed faculty and staff" (650 Sparkman). 


This is valuable research when i am discussing how the university involvement is needed to improve retention in schools.